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Batteries

 

Recharge Range | FAQs | Applications 
   

FAQs

Battery Knowledge

What are the applications of different types of batteries available in the market?
Battery Types Voltage (V) Common Usages
Primary
Alkaline 1.5 CD/MD/MP3 players, toys, cameras, remote controls
Carbon zinc 1.5 Clocks, radios, smoke alarm
Lithium coin 3.0 Calculators, electronic organizers   
Lithium photo 3.0 / 6.0 Cameras    
Silver oxide 1.55 Watches
Zinc air 1.4 Hearing aids
Rechargeable
NiMH 1.2 Digital cameras, portable CD/MD/MP3 players, remote controlled racing toy cars
NiCd 1.2 Cameras, Personal Stereos, Torches, Toys   
Li-ion 3.6-3.7 Notebook computers, PDAs, mobile phones, camcorders, digital cameras
 
Power Requirement Electronic Devices Recommended Batteries
High Digital cameras, Handheld TVPortable MD/MP3/CD playersPDAs, Handheld games, High-end remote-controlled toys Rechargeable NiMH batteries       
Moderate to High Personal stereos, FM Radios, Cameras, Torches Rechargeable NiCd, Alkaline batteries 
Low Remote controls, Clocks, Torches Zinc carbon batteries

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What is the difference between rechargeable battery chemistries?

Lithium Ion (Li-ion) batteries have increased capacity and are very lightweight. Their nominal voltage is 3.7V.

Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries offer high capacity (over twice the amount of Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries), quick charging capabilities and great reliability. They are especially good for high drain applications like digital cameras and motor toys. They are also suitable for CD players, MD players, and MP3 players etc. The nominal voltage of NiMH batteries is 1.2V.

Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries have a longer cycle life, though shorter run-time than NiMH batteries. They are the most cost effective rechargeable batteries and can last up to 1000 charges. They are hardy and can withstand very low temperatures and rough use. The nominal voltage of NiCd batteries is 1.2V.

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Are primary batteries fully replaceable by rechargeable batteries even though they are 1.2 volts?
Primary Battery

Yes, since the voltage- delivery in Rechargeable batteries is much more consistent then in 1.5V primary batteries. rechargeable batteries are ideal substitutes in most cases, especially in high power consumption electronic devices.

Rechargeable Battery

Although alkaline batteries are rated at a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts, as they begin discharging, their voltage continuously drops. Over the course of discharge, the average voltage of alkaline batteries is in fact about 1.2 volts, very close to rechargeable batteries. The main difference is that an alkaline battery starts at 1.5 volts and gradually drops to less than 1.0 volt, while rechargeable batteries stay at about 1.2 volts for most of the service time.

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What is cycle life?

Cycle life is the number of charge and discharge cycles a battery can achieve before the discharged capacity drops to end of life. The cycle life is generally considered to terminate when the capacity is less than 60 - 80% of the nominal capacity, depending on the specific charge / discharge conditions.

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What does "Recharge upto 1000 times" mean?

It means that the battery can last upto 1000 “Cycle Lives” falling not below 60% of rated capacity, with a charging rate of 0.1C and discharging at 0.2C.

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What is "2700" in 2700series?

The power-capacity of a rechargeable battery is measured in ‘milli Ampere Hours’ or mAH. ‘2700series’ having a typical power capacity of 2600mAh, is capable of delivering power upto 2700mAh. Hence, the nomenclature ‘2700series’.

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How much time is required before the rechargeable batteries perform optimally?

For brand new batteries, 2 to 3 cycles of charging and discharging are required to optimize battery performance.

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What is the optimal Battery storage temperature?

20 - 35° C

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Battery Maintenance

What affects cycle life performance?
The following factors may affect a battery's cycle life
Charge You are recommended to charge the batteries with appropriate chargers equipped with correct charge termination methods (such as timer, negative delta voltage and temperature cut-off), so as to avoid the possibility of shortened cycle life resulted from overcharging. Generally speaking, slow charging would lead to longer cycle life than high rate charging.
Discharge
1. The dominant variable affecting cycle life is the depth of discharge. The deeper the depth of discharge, the shorter the cycle life. By decreasing the depth of discharge, the cycle life of a battery will be significantly increased. For this reason, it is necessary to avoid over-discharging of batteries to a very low voltage. Depending on different discharge currents, 0.8-1.0V per cell is the generally acceptable end point voltage.
2. Discharging battery at high temperatures will reduce the cycle life.
3. Batteries can sometimes be drained excessively by small residual currents in idle equipment left for extended periods, if the design of the equipment does not shut down all currents completely.
4. Using battery with different capacities, chemistries, charge levels or using old and new batteries together can also cause over-discharge.
Storage
1. If a battery is stored for a long time at a high temperature, the electrode will deteriorate, reducing the cycle life.
2. Avoid leaving a battery in a charger for an extended period.

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How do we maximize battery service life?
To maximize the life cycle of batteries, the user should be
1.

Store the battery in a cool, dry and well ventilated place out of direct sunlight. The ambient temperature should be kept below 30degC for long-term storage. Prevent charging or using batteries in extreme temperatures.

2.

Charge the batteries with correct chargers to minimize the chance of overcharging. Choose charger with appropriate charge control. It is recommended to purchase batteries plus charger bundle packs.

3. Charge and discharge the battery occasionally to prevent the battery voltage from dropping down to 0.8V.
4. Remove batteries from an equipment or turn off the equipment if it is not to be used for a period of time.
5. Avoid overcharging the battery by exceeding the predetermined charging period specified by battery manufacturer.
6. Avoid mixing batteries of different chemistries, capacities and state of charge in the same devices.

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Do warm and cold temperatures affect batteries?

Extreme heat or cold reduces battery performance. Avoid putting battery-powered devices in very warm places. In addition, refrigeration is not necessary or recommended. Store batteries at room temperature in dry environment.

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Should I store rechargeable batteries in a fully charged or discharged state?

It is best to store batteries on a shelf and apply a topping-charge before use rather than leaving the pack in the charger for days. Even at a seemingly correct trickle charge, nickel-based batteries produce a crystalline formation (also referred to as ‘memory’) when left in the charger. Because of relatively high self-discharge, a topping charge is needed before use. Most Li-ion chargers permit a battery to remain engaged without inflicting damage.

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What is short circuit and what are its consequences?

A short circuit occurs if the positive and negative terminals of the battery are bridged by any kind of conducting materials e.g. key chains, paper clips. Short circuits may have serious consequences. For example, the battery temperature will rise, causing internal gas pressure to build up and eventually resulting in battery leakage.

To avoid short circuits, do not carry charged or fresh batteries in the same pocket with coins or bunches of keys.

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Charging & Discharging

Fast charging vs slow charging, which is better?

Fast charging employs a high charging current which enables you to charge up a Rechargeable battery in a relatively shorter time, ranging from 6 hours to even half an hour.

Using a low charging current, slow charging often refers to overnight charging, which normally takes over 12 hours to charge up a Rechargeable battery.

However, the time it takes to fully charge a battery depends on the charging current of the charger and the capacity of the battery.

Imagine filling up a bucket under a running water tap. The bigger the bucket, the longer it takes to fill it up. You can also increase the rate of filling the bucket by turning up the tap a bit more.

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What is trickle charge?

Trickle charge refers to an extremely low charging current that is enough to keep the batteries in fully charged condition but without overcharging the battery.

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How do we select a charger?

Fast chargers and slow chargers have their respective merits and demerits. You should choose a charger that meets your performance and cost requirements.

A fast charger delivers speed, but its design is more complicated, and therefore is usually more expensive than a slow charger.

Overcharging can shorten a NiMH battery's cycle life. Hence a well-designed fast charger has to incorporate certain protection mechanisms that prevent the batteries from being overcharged.

These protection mechanisms, ranging from sophisticated voltage detection to temperature monitoring and timer control, can be expensive. Normally a fast charger has to incorporate at least one of these mechanisms. The more mechanisms it has, the better the protection and thus the higher the price. Therefore, when charging speed is not a priority, it would be more cost effective to select a slow charger, which also gives longer battery service life and enables fuller charge of a battery compared with a fast charger.

However, for applications that require fast charging speed, (e.g. digital cameras, remote-controlled racing toy cars) it would be worthwhile to invest more for a fast charger to ensure continuous supply of energy.

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Can we charge batteries continuously?

Yes, depending on the design of the charger. Theoretically a Rechargeable battery can be charged continuously in a charger at an input current equal to 10% of its nominal capacity (Eg. 70mA for a 700mAH battery), which is a very low rate of charging.

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What is the self-discharge rate of NiMH batteries?

If a NiMH battery is left idle after being fully charged, it will gradually lose its energy. This is called self-discharge. In general, the rate of self-discharge ranges from 15% to 20% per month at room temperature.

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My rechargeable batteries get warm during charging. Is something wrong?

Some temperature rise cannot be avoided when charging nickel-based batteries. A temperature peak is reached when the battery approaches full charge. The temperature must moderate when the ready light appears and the battery has switched to trickle charge. The battery should eventually cool to room temperature.

If the temperature does not drop and remains above room temperature, the charger is performing incorrectly. In such a case, the battery should be removed as soon as possible after the ready light appears. Any prolonged trickle charging will damage the battery. This caution applies especially to NiMH because it cannot absorb overcharge well.

A lithium-based battery should never get warm in a charger. If this happens, the battery is faulty or the charger is not functioning properly. Discontinue using this battery and/or charger.

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What are the ideal rates of Charging and Discharging of a Rechargeable battery?  

The charge and discharge current of a battery is measured in C-rate. Most portable batteries, with the exception of the lead acid, are rated at 1C. For example, if a rechargeable battery having a rated capacity of 1000mAh gets charged at 100mA current, it is said to be charged at 0.1C.Discharge refers to the rate at which a device (Eg: Camera, torch etc) draws current from a battery. Hence, a battery rated at 1000mAh provides 1000mA for one hour if discharged at 1C rate.

The ideal rates for charging a Rechargeable battery is at 0.1C, and discharging at 0.2C. Following these rates will maximize the battery-life & performance.

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What are the features of the Eveready2700 Intelligent Charger?
  • AC 100 -240
  • Quick charge - 6 hours
  • Charges both AA & AAA NiMH/NiCD batteries
  • Charges battery of any capacity
  • Individual dual colour LED Indicator for each battery slot
  • Changes from Red to blue when charging is complete

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How is the eveready recharge 2700 Intelligent Charger used?
  • Eveready Recharge 2700 Intelligent charger can charge 1-4pcs of AA/AAA NiMH/NiCd rechargeable batteries .
  • Insert Eveready Recharge 2700NiMH rechargeable batteries into the battery compartment with correct polarity & positions .
  • Directly plug Eveready Recharge Quick Charger into its corresponding AC power outlet for charging .
  • The LED would glow Red when charging is in progress. It will turn blue when charging is complete .
  • Individual dual colour LED for each battery slot .
  • To ensure the batteries are fully charged , please refer to the charging time table.

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What is the optimal Charger operation temperature?

0 - 45° C

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Is it normal for the batteries get warm during charging?

Yes, it is normal for batteries to become warm during charging.

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